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Aquatic Microbiology

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BREAKOUT ROOM

•  Marine Habitats
•  Planktonic Communities
•  Planktonic Food Webs
•  Ocean Floor
•  Cold-Seep Ecosystems
•  The Deep Sea and Barophilism
•  Sea Coral and Sea Anemone Zooxanthellae
•  Sponge Communities
•  Freshwater Environments

Aquatic Microbiology  Aquatic Microbiology Aquatic Microbiology

Marine Habitats
•  Marine habitats can be divided into coastal and open ocean habitats.
•  Coastal habitats are found in the area that extends from as far as the tide comes in on the shoreline out to the edge of the continental shelf.
•  Open ocean habitats are found in the deep ocean beyond the edge of the continental shelf.
•  Most marine life is found in coastal habitats, even though the shelf area occupies only seven percent of the total ocean area.


Planktonic Communities
•  Plankton are primarily divided into broad functional (or trophic level) groups: Phytoplankton, Zooplankton, and Bacterioplankton.
•  Plankton cover a wide range of sizes, including microscopic to large organisms such as jellyfish.
•  Plankton community into broad producer, consumer, and recycler groups.


Planktonic Food Webs
•  Plankton communities represent the bottom few levels of a food chain that supports commercially important fisheries.
•  Plankton ecosystems also play a crucial role in the biogeochemical cycles of many important chemical elements, including the ocean’s carbon cycle.
•  The growth of phytoplankton populations is dependent on light levels and nutrient availability.


Ocean Floor
•  Recently, there has been the discovery of abundant marine life in the deep sea, especially around hydrothermal vents.
•  Hydrothermal vents along the mid-ocean ridge spreading centers act as oases and support unique biomes and many new microbes.
•  Each area of the seabed has typical features such as common soil composition, typical topography, salinity of water layers above it, marine life, magnetic direction of rocks, and sedimenting.


Cold-Seep Ecosystems
•  Cold seeps develop unique topography over time, where reactions between methane and seawater create carbonate rock formations and reefs.
•  Types of cold seeps can be distinguished according to the depth, as shallow cold seeps and deep cold seeps.
•  Organisms living in cold seeps are known as extremophiles.


The Deep Sea and Barophilism
•  The three main sources of energy and nutrients for deep sea communities are marine snow, whale falls, and chemosynthesis.
•  Zones of the deep sea include the mesopelagic zone, the bathyal zone, the abyssal zone, and the hadal zone.
•  Organisms have adapted in novel ways to become tolerant of the high pressures and cool temperatures in order to colonize deep sea habitats.


Sea Coral and Sea Anemone Zooxanthellae
•  Zooxanthellae species are members of the phylum Dinoflagellata.The most common genus is Symbiodinium.
•  Each Symbiodinium cell is coccoid in hospite (living in a host cell) and surrounded by a membrane that originates from the host cell plasmalemma during phagocytosis.
•  Zooxanthellates mutualistic relationships with reef-building corals form the basis of a highly diverse and productive ecosystem.


Sponge Communities
•  Sponge reefs are considered to be “living fossils”.
•  Hexactinellids, or “glassy” sponges are characterized by a rigid framework of spicules made of silica.
•  A unique feature of glassy sponges is that their tissues are made up almost entirely of syncytia.


Freshwater Environments
•  Freshwater habitats are divided into lentic systems (which are the stillwaters including ponds, lakes, swamps and mires) and lotic systems, which are running water; and groundwater which flows in rocks and aquifers.
•  Fresh water creates a hypotonic environment for aquatic organisms.
•  Most aquatic organisms have a limited ability to regulate their osmotic balance and therefore can only live within a narrow range of salinity.


Appendix

Key terms
•   benthic Pertaining to the benthos; living on the seafloor, as opposed to floating in the ocean.
•   biogeochemical cycles A biogeochemical cycle or substance turnover or cycling of substances is a pathway by which a chemical element or molecule moves through both biotic (biosphere) and abiotic (lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere) compartments of Earth.A cycle is a series of change which comes back to the starting point and which can be repeated.
•   biogeochemical cycles A biogeochemical cycle or substance turnover or cycling of substances is a pathway by which a chemical element or molecule moves through both biotic (biosphere) and abiotic (lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere) compartments of Earth.A cycle is a series of change which comes back to the starting point and which can be repeated.
•   chemosynthesis The production of carbohydrates and other compounds from simple compounds such as carbon dioxide, using the oxidation of chemical nutrients as a source of energy rather than sunlight; it is limited to certain bacteria and fungi.
•   coastal Relating to the coast; on or near the coast, as a coastal town, a coastal breeze.
•   cold seep A cold seep (sometimes called a cold vent) is an area of the ocean floor where hydrogen sulfide, methane, and other hydrocarbon-rich fluid seepage occurs, often in the form of a brine pool.”Cold” does not mean temperature of seepage is lower than surrounding sea water.Actually, its temperature is often slightly higher.
•   deep sea The deeper part of the sea or ocean in which no light penetrates.
•   ecosystems Communities of living organisms (plants, animals and microbes) in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water, and mineral soil), interacting as a system; linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows.
•   ecosystems Communities of living organisms (plants, animals and microbes) in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water, and mineral soil), interacting as a system; linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows.
•   endosymbiont An organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism.
•   extremophiles An extremophile (from Latin extremus, meaning “extreme,” and Greek philiā (φ), meaning “love”) is an organism that thrives in physically or geochemically extreme conditions that are detrimental to most life on earth.
•   Freshwater Fresh water is naturally occurring water on the Earth’s surface in ice sheets, ice caps, glaciers, bogs, ponds, lakes, rivers and streams, and underground as groundwater in aquifers and underground streams.Fresh water is generally characterized by having low concentrations of dissolved salts and other total dissolved solids.
•  habitat A specific place or natural conditions in which a plant or animal lives.
•  hypotonic Having a lower osmotic pressure than another.
•  marine Of, or pertaining to, the sea (marine biology, marine insurance).
•  organisms An organism is any contiguous living system (such as animal, fungus, micro-organism, or plant).In at least some form, all types of organisms are capable of response to stimuli, reproduction, growth and development, and maintenance of homeostasis as a stable whole.
•  osmotic balance Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of an organism’s fluids to maintain the homeostasis of the organism’s water content; that is, it keeps the organism’s fluids from becoming too diluted or too concentrated.
•  phagocytosis the process by which a cell incorporates foreign particles intracellularly.
•  piezophile A piezophile (also called a barophile) is an organism which thrives at high pressures, such as deep sea bacteria or archaea.
•  plankton Plankton (singular plankter) are any organisms that live in the water column and are incapable of swimming against a current.They provide a crucial source of food to many large aquatic organisms, such as fish and whales.
•  plankton Plankton (singular plankter) are any organisms that live in the water column and are incapable of swimming against a current.They provide a crucial source of food to many large aquatic organisms, such as fish and whales.
•  plankton Plankton (singular plankter) are any organisms that live in the water column and are incapable of swimming against a current.They provide a crucial source of food to many large aquatic organisms, such as fish and whales.
•  silica Any of the silica group of the silicate minerals.
•  Sponge reefs Sponge reefs serve an important ecological function as habitat, breeding, and nursery areas for fish and invertebrates.The reefs are currently threatened by the fishery, offshore oil, and gas industries.
•  syncytia A syncytia (plural syncytia) is a multinucleate cell which can result from multiple cell fusions of uninuclear cells (i.e., cells with a single nucleus), in contrast to a coenocyte, which can result from multiple nuclear divisions without accompanying cytokinesis.
•  topography A detailed graphic representation of the surface features of a place or object.
•  trophic Describing the relationships between the feeding habits of organisms in a food chain.

Symbiodinium cell
Symbiodinium cell living inside a jellyfish.

Oceanic ridge with deep sea vent
Oceanic ridge with deep sea vent.

Aphrocallistes vastus
Aphrocallistes vastus (Cloud sponge), is a major reef-building species.

Photomontage of plankton organisms
Plankton are any water-column organisms that are incapable of swimming against a current.

Deep Sea Pelagic Zones
Mesopelagic, bathyl, abyssal, and hadal zones.

Aphrocallistes vastus (Cloud sponge), is a major reef-building species.

Marine Habitats
Coral reefs provide marine habitats for tube sponges, which in turn become marine habitats for fishes.

Zooarium chimney provides a habitat for vent biota.

Distribution (by volume) of water on Earth
Visualization of the distribution (by volume) of water on Earth.Each tiny cube (such as the one representing biological water) corresponds to approximately 1000 km³ of water, with a mass of about 1 trillion tonnes (200000 times that of the Great Pyramid of Giza).The entire block comprises 1 million tiny cubes.

Diatoms
Assorted diatoms as seen through a microscope.These specimens were living between crystals of annual sea ice in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica.Image digitized from original 35mm Ektachrome slide.These tiny phytoplankton are encased within a silicate cell wall.

A Beggiatoa bacterial mat at the Blake Ridge
Beggiatoa spp. bacterial mat at a seep on Blake Ridge, off the coast of South Carolina.The red dots are range-finding laser beams.Beggiatoa are able to detoxify hydrogen sulfide in soil.

Attribution
•  Wiktionary. “deep sea.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/deep+sea
•  Wiktionary. “chemosynthesis.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/chemosynthesis
•  Boundless Learning. “Boundless.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//microbiology/definition/piezophile
•  Wikipedia. “Deep sea communities.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deep_sea_communities
•  Wikipedia. “Barophile.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barophile
•  Wikipedia. “Fresh water.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fresh_water
•  Boundless Learning. “Boundless.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//microbiology/definition/osmotic-balance
•  Wiktionary. “hypotonic.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hypotonic
•  Boundless Learning. “Boundless.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//microbiology/definition/freshwater
•  Wikipedia. “Symbiodinium.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symbiodinium
•  Wiktionary. “benthic.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/benthic
•  Wiktionary. “phagocytosis.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/phagocytosis
•  Wiktionary. “endosymbiont.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/endosymbiont
•  Boundless Learning. “Boundless.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//microbiology/definition/syncytia
•  Boundless Learning. “Boundless.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//microbiology/definition/sponge-reefs
•  Wikipedia. “Sponge reef.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sponge_reef
•  Wiktionary. “silica.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/silica

•  Wiktionary. “habitat.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/habitat
•  Wiktionary. “coastal.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/coastal
•  Wiktionary. “marine.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/marine
•  Wikipedia. “Marine habitats.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marine_habitats
•  Wikipedia. “Plankton.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plankton
•  Wiktionary. “plankton.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/plankton
•  Boundless Learning. “Boundless.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//microbiology/definition/biogeochemical-cycles
•  Wiktionary. “ecosystems.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/ecosystems
•  Wikipedia. “Plankton.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plankton
•  Boundless Learning. “Boundless.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//microbiology/definition/biogeochemical-cycles
•  Wiktionary. “ecosystems.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/ecosystems
•  Wiktionary. “plankton.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/plankton
•  Wikipedia. “Plankton.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plankton
•  Boundless Learning. “Boundless.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//microbiology/definition/organisms
•  Wiktionary. “trophic.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/trophic
•  Wiktionary. “plankton.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/plankton
•  Wikipedia. “Cold seep.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_seep
•  Wiktionary. “extremophiles.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/extremophiles
•  Wiktionary. “topography.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/topography

•  Boundless Learning. “Boundless.” CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//microbiology/definition/cold-seep


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